Background and objective: The dust phenomenon is one of the important climatic hazards in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, which causes human and financial losses to humans. In recent decades, due to long-term droughts, the incidence of dust has increased. Considering that Iran is one of the centers affected by particulate matter and the damage caused by this phenomenon affects our country, special attention should be paid to the issue of increasing particulate matter. The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in the dust, vegetation density, and wind conditions in the geographical region of south and southeast of Iran and its neighbors, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Materials and methods: Through NASA Giovanni online modeling and the use of MERRA-2 satellite imagery to study dust and wind stress and the MODIS-Terra satellite to study vegetation. During the last 40 years from 1980 to 2020, the state of dust and wind stress was examined. Vegetation has also been studied over the past 20 years and 10-year periods from 2000 to 2020. Dust monitoring from June 2018 to February 2021 was also analyzed using Google Earth Engine, using long-term monthly images of Sentinel5 satellites.
Results and conclusion: The results show that with increasing the amount of dust, the percentage of vegetation, increases, and decrease in wind stress. Although plants and wind have had a good trend in these years, this increase in dust can be due to lower water levels and increased dust collection sites as a result of not observing the water level of wetlands.